Re report on the research of the hottest rape harv

2022-09-21
  • Detail

The article describes the current situation of the development of rape harvesters in China and the development ideas of the research on multifunctional rape harvesters, focuses on the research scheme of the project, and describes a number of innovations at the same time

[Key words] rape; Harvester; Research Report

0 Introduction

China is a large rape planting country. With the adjustment of China's agricultural planting structure, in accordance with the goal of developing the double low rape industrial belt in the Yangtze River Basin put forward by China's "Tenth Five Year Plan" agricultural outline, China's rape planting area has reached 8million hectares, of which the Yangtze River Basin accounts for more than 70% of the national rape planting area

the mechanization level of rape production in China is quite backward, and rape is basically operated by traditional manual or semi mechanized operations from planting to harvesting. Especially in the harvesting link, the labor intensity is high, and the production efficiency is low. In addition, the manual harvesting should be carried out through the processes of cutting, drying, stripping and lifting, which has a large loss, generally more than 10%. In the Yangtze River Delta region, the rape harvest period is in the busy season of the three summers. The agricultural time is tight, the labor force is tight, and the rape cannot be harvested in time, which leads to the germination and mildew of rapeseed, affects the quality of rapeseed, and seriously hinders the further development of rape production

with the improvement of the mechanization of rice and wheat harvesting in China, the demand for mechanized harvesting of economic crops rape in rural areas is increasingly urgent. Therefore, it is urgent to develop the mechanization of rape production in China

1 development idea of mechanized harvesting of rape

in order to develop China's rape harvester and make the research and development work at a high starting point, at the beginning of 2000, Shanghai Institute of agricultural machinery introduced "Haige 160" machines and tools from abroad for testing and measurement, and put forward the research and design idea of combining digestion, absorption and domestic technological innovation according to China's national conditions

the research and development of rape harvester was carried out on the basis of digestion and absorption. In August, 2001, it was included in the key research project of revitalizing agriculture through science and technology in Shanghai. A breakthrough was made in technology, and a "multi-functional rape harvester" with independent intellectual property rights was developed. In August, 2002, it passed the appraisal of municipal scientific research achievements

in order to further accelerate the transformation of technological achievements and promote the process of mechanized production of rape in China. In July, 2002, Shanghai undertook the agricultural science and technology leap forward plan "rape mechanized production technology and machinery pilot test" issued by the Department of science and education of the Ministry of agriculture, and was also listed as the key research and pilot test promotion project of Shanghai Science and technology to revitalize agriculture. It passed the on-site acceptance of the pilot project of the Ministry of agriculture in June, 2004

2 technical problems to be solved in the research of rape harvester

according to the above development ideas, one machine should be multi-purpose, and the main working parts can not only meet the requirements of harvesting rape, but also be compatible with harvesting other crops as far as possible. Aiming at the "multi-function rape harvester" developed, the key technical problems to be solved are mainly broken through

2.1 determination of the overall design scheme

study a "multi-functional rape harvester" suitable for China's national conditions. Considering that the rape production areas are mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Basin, and the fields are wet and soft, the machines and tools must be designed as a rubber crawler self-propelled chassis with good trafficability. The model can realize the multi-function of one machine, which can harvest rape, rice, wheat and other crops, and improve the utilization rate of the machines and tools

- diesel engine with 32.4kw (44 HP) power configuration

- the header design adopts the combination form of rice and wheat header connected with the special header body of rape

- hydraulic control technology is adopted in the adjustment design of reel

- the harvest branch mechanism is designed with a single side vertical crop divider

- the design of threshing and separation mechanism adopts the unique structural combination of axial-flow nail tooth roller and fixed tooth concave screen

- the cleaning and lifting parts are designed with a double-layer punching plane screen that can be quickly replaced and a secondary trash recycling cleaning mechanism

- the machine is also designed as a disc cutter cutting device for straw crushing

2.2 technical design scheme and innovative achievements

2.2.1 technical design scheme:

the "multi-functional rape harvester" is designed with a rubber crawler self-propelled chassis and a diesel power of 32.4kw

main technical performance indicators of machine design:

productivity: 0 4 hm2/h,

total loss rate: rape ≤ 6%, rice ≤ 3.5%, wheat ≤ 1.5%,

damage rate: rape ≤ 0.5%, rice, wheat ≤ 2%,

impurity content: rape ≤%, rice, wheat ≤ 2%, reliability: ≥ 90%

process flow of machine design:

rapeseed → header → adjustable conveying device → threshing and cleaning device → straw crushing and diffusion

2.2.2 technological innovation points

focus on breaking through the new scheme to solve the design of combined header, threshing and separation mechanism, cleaning and separation mechanism, straw crushing device and reel

- combined header: it mainly solves the problems of header loss rate and adaptability during high and low rape harvest. The combined header can harvest rice, wheat and other crops through rapid replacement, realizing the multi-function of one machine

- threshing and separation mechanism: it mainly solves the damage rate of threshing and the ability of seed purification and separation, solves the problem of inconsistent maturity of rape, and it is difficult to separate fruit pods, enhances the degree of purification, and reduces blockage and loss

- cleaning and lifting mechanism: it mainly solves the cleaning loss rate and grain cleanliness. It adopts a double-layer replaceable perforated plane screen and a residue secondary recovery cleaning mechanism to reduce the cleaning loss and improve the cleanliness of harvested grains

- the basic parameters of stem (a) filling mainly include the sending unit, testing unit, batch number, date, experimental ambient temperature, specification and other stalk crushing devices: it mainly solves the problem of rape stalk crushing discharged by the threshing drum, and plays the function of stalk chopping and returning to the field

- the reel mechanism adopts a new design scheme of moving the axis backward, which is a new idea for the design of the reel of the combine harvester. It is an innovation for the rape harvester and plays a vital role in reducing the harvest loss

2.3 comprehensive comparison with similar research and similar technology at home and abroad

the "multi-functional rape harvester" studied in this project is leading in China and reaches the international advanced level

in recent years, rape harvesters developed by some manufacturers have been modified and replaced by rice and wheat harvesters, which have the problems of large header loss, poor grain separation effect and high impurity content. Generally, the loss rate is 8-12% and the impurity content is 12.9-35%. Due to the shallow header depth, it is difficult to meet the requirements of rape crop harvesting

the rape harvesters produced abroad are relatively advanced products of German Hege company. The electric hydraulic technology is widely used in the machines and tools, and the harvest quality is good. However, the wheel structure of Haige model is more suitable for dry land operation, and is not suitable for the Yangtze River Delta area. The Striped bar threshing dynamic vulcanized rubber (TPV) adopted by it has rubber elasticity, which is not conducive to rice threshing

on the basis of introduction, digestion and absorption, the project has carried out secondary technological innovation design, and the products have reached the international advanced level. The technical performance indexes of this machine are compared with the test results of foreign Hege 160 machines and tools, as shown in Table 1

Table 1 Comparison between multi-functional rape harvester and foreign models

machine cutting width (m) stubble height (CM) header loss rate (%) total loss rate (%) crushing rate (%) impurity content (%) fuel consumption (kg/hm2) productivity (hm2/h)

rape harvester 1.932.01.28 3.90000.9010.1 0.47

Hager 160 1.835.2 1.59 2.520 2.10 28.8 0.21

the test results show that,the, The technical performance index of this research project has reached the level of heiger machines and tools in Germany. Because this machine adopts a rubber crawler type walking chassis, its passing performance is better, and it is more suitable for rape production areas in China. The machines and tools not only have good harvest quality, but also have high efficiency, low oil consumption and low cost (52000 yuan/set), which is only about 1/10 of heiger 160. It is more competitive in price than foreign models, reflecting the combination of technological progressiveness and practicality, It is suitable for the application and promotion of China's national conditions

The successful development of this technical achievement has been applied and popularized in the Yangtze River Delta, which has effectively solved the problems that have plagued the mechanized harvesting of rape in China for a long time, filled the gap of "multi-functional rape harvester" in China, and is a major breakthrough in mechanical harvesting technology in China

mechanical harvesting of rape can reduce the loss of field operations. The total loss rate of mechanical harvesting is 3.90%, which is 10.68 percentage points lower than the total loss rate of manual harvesting, collection, stripping, lifting and other operations of 14.58%

machine harvesting operation saves labor and cost, which reduces labor input by 106.03 man days/HA and saves cost input by 1853.80 yuan/ha respectively compared with human harvesting operation, and improves the labor saving rate by 65.48% and the cost saving range by 30.87%. Digital platform technology is the carrier to realize digital manufacturing

through the implementation of the "agricultural science and technology leap forward plan" project of the Ministry of agriculture, the integration and maturation of this pilot technology has accelerated the transformation of technological achievements, expanded large-scale production, promoted the development of industrialization, and has great market development potential and application prospects. It will be based in Shanghai, serve the country, and achieve the goal of developing the double low rape industrial belt in the Yangtze River Basin proposed in the national agricultural outline

3.1 economic benefits, ecological benefits and social benefits

3.1.1 economic benefits

after the successful development of the "multi-functional rape harvester", the production test and promotion application were carried out in this city and other provinces and cities. The application results show that the machine has good performance, with the characteristics of low cost, high work efficiency and good harvest quality, and is deeply welcomed by farmers everywhere. At present, the products have been sold to Jiangsu, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hubei, Anhui, Zhejiang and other provinces and cities. A total of 700 sets have been produced and sold in three years, with a cumulative production and sales revenue of 36.4 million yuan and a profit and tax of 8.4 million yuan. Remarkable economic benefits have been achieved

benefit period of project achievements: it is estimated that 10000 machines and tools can be promoted within five years, which will produce greater scientific and technological achievements

3.1.2 ecological benefits

the popularization and application of rape mechanized harvesting technology has improved the level of agricultural mechanized production and promoted the development of agricultural economy and ecology. At the same time, mechanized harvesting can effectively realize the chopping and returning of stems to the field, which can not only reduce the serious environmental pollution caused by the burning of stems, but also increase the content of organic matter in farmland, which is conducive to improving the physical and chemical properties of soil and protecting the ecosystem. It is conducive to the sustainable development of grain field production in Jiangnan agricultural double cropping area

3.1.3 social benefits

rape mechanized combined harvest technology has obvious labor-saving and cost saving, reduces harvest losses, increases income and efficiency, and greatly improves the production efficiency and economic benefits of rape. And it can harvest in time, so as to ensure the quality of rapeseed, improve the commodity value of rapeseed, and enhance the market competitiveness of rape agricultural products. It has effectively alleviated the contradiction of tight labor demand in agricultural seasons, and is of positive significance to promote the structural adjustment of agricultural planting industry and expand large-scale production

the use of advanced mechanized harvesting technology greatly reduces the labor intensity of rape production, and has good operation quality and high production efficiency

4 Conclusion

Shanghai Agricultural Machinery Research Institute, Xiangming head office of Shanghai agricultural industry and Commerce Group, Shanghai Agricultural Machinery Technology Extension Station, Shanghai Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center and other units have jointly tackled key problems since 1999. After four years of efforts

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